This expression can be factored by applying two concepts:

- Factor out a common divisor
- Difference of two squares formula

First factor our a common divisor,

`x^2(x^2 - 1)`,

Rewrite 1 as `1^2` and apply the difference of squares formula `a^2 - b^2 = (a + b)(a - b)`,

`x^2(x^2 - 1^2)`

`x^2(x + 1)(x - 1)`

Thus the expression `x^4 - x^2` has been completely factored into `x^2(x + 1)(x - 1)`

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